According to statistics, every fourth inhabitant of the planet has a “bump” near the big toe: a fairly common pathology that rarely anyone pays attention to and consults a specialist. In fact, hallux valgus—the medical name for bunions or bunions—over time begins to cause serious discomfort, significantly reducing quality of life. In some patients it comes to surgery.
Traumatologist-orthopedist of the first professional network of orthopedic salons Rashid Saidovtold aif.ru where hallux valgus comes from, what methods of prevention and correction of the disease exist, and in which cases surgery is necessary.
What is hallux valgus?
Hallux valgus deformity occurs on the foot due to the fact that the big toe at some point begins to bend inward towards the little toe. Over time, a lump forms, consisting of new bone tissue and a “bulging” head of the metatarsal bone. The big toe begins to gradually creep onto the neighboring ones (or bend more and more under them), due to which the deformation spreads further along the entire forefoot up to the little toe.
There are several reasons for the development of pathology:
- wearing uncomfortable, too narrow shoes. High heels can also cause the formation of a “bump”;
- standing work and other activities associated with prolonged static load on the feet;
- orthopedic diseases;
- physical inactivity, sedentary work, excess body weight;
- heredity – if close relatives have hallux valgus, then there is a risk of encountering the disease personally;
- gender: according to statistics, women more often suffer from hallux valgus;
- hormonal disruptions caused by puberty, pregnancy and lactation, menopause, etc.;
- a history of foot injuries.
The disease develops in three stages, the severity of the pathology depends on the angle of inclination of the thumb. The most serious is considered to be a severe deformity of the third degree with a toe tilt of 35 degrees or more.
Signs of hallux valgus
The main symptom—that same “bump”—at the initial stage does not cause physical discomfort, remaining a minor cosmetic defect. But due to the fact that the position of the finger during hallux valgus is not physiologically correct, unpleasant symptoms begin to develop over time:
- forefoot pain;
- joint swelling;
- fatigue when walking, constant feeling of discomfort;
- increase in “bump”, difficulties with choosing shoes;
- gradual deformation of the toes on the affected foot;
- marching fractures – they occur due to inadequate load on a healthy bone: in this case, the metatarsal bones of the foot suffer. They manifest themselves as pain in the middle part of the foot, and the fractures can be so small that they remain unnoticed on an x-ray for a long time.
With advanced valgus, each step begins to cause pain or severe discomfort. The foot stops “working” correctly from a physiological point of view, which is why hallux valgus leads to the development of other diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
The most effective methods of correction
At the initial stages of development, hallux valgus deformity is treated conservatively, work is carried out in two directions: elimination of associated symptoms and correction of the pathology itself.
To correct valgus use:
- Personally selected orthopedic insolesto properly distribute the load on the bones and joints, as well as reduce pressure on the affected area of the foot;
- Night bandages and orthosesto keep your finger in the correct position while resting – this will help slow down or completely stop the development of pathology;
- Kinesio taping helps to reduce bunions, as well as relieve discomfort and reduce fatigue in the legs;
- The right shoesin particular, orthopedic, is a means of correction and prevention of the development of “bumps”;
- Therapeutic socksespecially in combination with insoles and night orthoses, help not only to correct the pathology, but also perfectly combat associated symptoms such as discomfort in the feet and increased fatigue.
Physiotherapy, special medicinal ointments, massages, shock wave therapy, and herbal baths will help relieve swelling and inflammation. If necessary, means are selected that will help prevent the formation of calluses and corns (frequent companions of hallux valgus).
However, you need to understand that these measures work effectively in the initial stages of the disease. In severe cases, correction alone is not enough, and then surgery may be required.
Who needs surgery and when?
Before the operation, you must consult with a doctor – orthopedic traumatologist. The specialist will assess whether surgical intervention is justified in this case and determine what kind of surgery the patient needs.
Indications for surgical intervention are: serious gait disturbances, extreme deformation, unbearable pain, transition of inflammation to the chronic stage.
Depending on the condition of the foot, the following may be prescribed:
- resection of the “bump”;
- plastic surgery of muscles and tendons in the forefoot;
- Corrective osteotomies are operations that allow you to get rid of pathology while preserving the joint. However, in some cases it may be necessary to install a titanium implant;
- minimally invasive operations.
Operations are performed under local or general anesthesia. Afterwards, the patient may be left under observation in a hospital, but for no more than three days. You are often allowed to go home immediately after surgery. During rehabilitation, you will have to wear a Baruk boot – this is a special shoe that will speed up recovery and allow the patient to maintain mobility. The doctor will inform you about the frequency of changing bandages and the timing of suture removal before discharge. On average, rehabilitation takes 4-6 weeks.
This news article has been translated from the original language to English by WorldsNewsNow.com.
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